Vse bolj se dogaja v naši deželici na sončni strani Alp sila zanimiv družbeni fenomen, da ljubi Slovenceljni prevzemamo skoraj vse novotarije
včasih totalne bedarije in nebodigatrebe krike, ki so v ZDA že prazgodovina, kar je porekla iz ZDA čeprav le te zaradi raznoraznih škandalov izgubljajo v očeh celega sveta ugled politične in gospodarske velesile ter obljubljene dežele, kjer se cedita med in mleko, kakor opažam.
Recimo, da govorim o restavracijah s hitro
in zelo nezdravo in redilno prehrano McDonald’s, sigurno ste že kdaj jedli tam? Klikni naprej →
In čudaška moda (zdi se mi, da gre za raperski stil) na slovenskih ulicah, zaradi katere se naši pobje oblačijo v smešno široke hlače, da jim tako visijo dol od zadnje plati naprej – kot je nekoč nekdo rekel: “V njih bi lahko človek cel teden brez problema opravljal veliko potrebo“.
In še bi se dalo naštevati – od tipično skomercializiranega kokakolskega Božička naprej (saj se spomnite tiste reklamice, ko se Božiček pelje s Coca Colinim tovornjakom skozi mestece in le tega zato osvetlijo čarobne lučke ali pa tele luštkane, zlasti za otroško dušo?).
Zadnja leta se pa uveljavlja velikansko uspešen in zabaven tržni krik – praznovanje Noči čarovnic.
Se spomnite, kako so množice leta 1978 drle v kina gledati mega uspešno grozljivko na to tematiko z istim naslovom Noč čarovnic (da se je le ta nadaljevala v
obupno dolgočasno serijo filmov, ni treba posebej poudarjati), ko je nadebudni 6-letni psihopatek Michael Myers z gromozanskim nožem umoril svojo sestro in njenega fanta prav na to noč, medtem, ko njunih staršev ni bilo doma – in seveda nadaljeval pohod klanja?
In kako preživeti najbolj strašno noč leta?
Udobno se usedite v naslanjač, spečite si praženo koruzo – sploh ni težko, samo nabavite si za to specializirano koruzo, v ponvi segrejete kocko masla/žličko olja in dodate koruzo ter pokrijete s pokrovom, da ne bo frčalo po celi kuhinji, nato si lahko posujete s soljo ali pa sladkorjem po okusu (po angleško popcorn) in si zavrtite kakšen DVD srhljivko ali grozljivko (kot so recimo – sicer seveda še nisem vseh pogledala: Izganjalec hudiča, Stigmata, Noč čarovnic, Petek 13., Mačje pokopališče, Megla, Hudič v Emily Rose, Dosjeji X, Lovci nad nadnaravno, Čarovnica iz Blaira, Amityville, Poltergeist, Prekleti, Krog, Drakula, Wendigo, Krik, Mumija, Omen, Dežela živih mrtvecev, Potopljene sence, Opazujemo te, Dr. Jekyll in gospod Hyde, Osmi potnik, Vsiljivci, Znamenja, Silent Hill, Tisto … izbire je veliko – če poznate še kako odlično, ki sem jo pozabila omeniti, mi jo kar napišite v komentarju!) prostor mora biti seveda zatemljen, recimo, da imate svetlobo ognja iz kamina (če ga imate) v dnevni sobi, to vam bo pognalo adrenalin po žilah (ljudje se splošno znano bojimo neznanega, najsi je to tema, smrti itd.).
Lahko se pa odpravite tudi v Kolosej (le zakaj me ta srhljivo in neprivlačno zgrajena stavba – res si ne morem zamisliti, da je njen arhitekt za tako idiotsko zastavljen načrt dobil kako nagrado! – tako močno spominja na kakšen letališki portal, kot je
Letališče Jožeta Pučnika Letališče Brnik?!), kjer trenutno vrtijo sledeče filme omenjenega žanra: Žaga 4, Ugrabitev, Nevidno zlo 3, 1408).
Izrezljajte srednje veliko oranžno bučo v grozljivo grimaso in notri postavite čajno svečko in jo postavite na okensko polico ali pred hišna vrata, lahko pa tudi na vrt, tukaj najdete izvrstne napotke za izdelavo!
Lahko se tudi našemite v kostum (tudi med odraslimi to postaja vse bolj priljubljeno) – to se mi zdi zanimiva američanska alternativa na maškarade/pustovanja/kurentovanja/karnevale februarja, značilno za naš konec, kajti v ZDA ne poznajo našega pusta, imajo pa zato Noč čarovnic, domnevam. Zlasti otroci uživajo, ko našemljeni v maškare (najsi so to čarovnice, duhci, zombiji … domišljija nima meja!) trkajo od hiše do hiše in fehtajo za sladkarije – vam je poznano? V ZDA imajo zabave v maškarah, obiskovanje”zakletih” hiš, kresovanja, zabavno igrico lovljenja jabolk v vodi, ognjemete … skratka, pestro dogajanje.
Lahko pa organizirate strašljiv družabni večer – z druščino se posedete ob kaminu ali pa za mizo, kjer gorijo omenjene buče si pripovedujete srhljive zgodbe o duhovih, pošastih, čarovnicah.
Na poštah že prodajajo raznorazne samolepilne nalepke za okna itd. z motivom Noči čarovnic – hja, poceni pa le niso (saj veste, inflacija – le kdaj se bo ustavila – ko bomo že vsi pocrkali od lakote mogoče?!).
Na mobilni telefon si lahko naložite ozadja, teme, melodije, animacije, ohranjevalnike zaslona itd. v duhu Noči čarovnic – ja, poceni pa le ni, vsi ponudniki mastno zaračunajo nakup in še naložitev le teh! … Enako velja tudi za računalnike/prenosnike – no, ja, tukaj le ni treba čisto vsega plačati, razen, če se ne odločite za ekstra ponudbo, kjer pa je treba primakniti nekaj fičnikov, seveda dolarčkov (mimogrede, euro (€) postaja vse bolj močnejši od dolarja ($), kar je znak tega, da se Evropska unija (EU) vse bolj krepi v primerjavi z ZDA).
No, ja, uradno rečeno se menda tale praznik imenuje sicer Predvečer vseh svetih (Združene države Amerike)
vsaj tako mi piše v seznamu praznikov Microsoft Outlooka, po angleško pa se mu pravi Halloween, citiram – ja, malce teorije ne škodi, kajne?:
Halloween, or Hallowe’en, is a holiday celebrated on the night of October 31. Traditional activities include trick-or-treating, Halloween festivals, bonfires, costume parties, visiting “haunted houses” and viewing horror films. Halloween originated from the Pagan festival Samhain, celebrated among the Celts of Ireland and Great Britain. Irish and Scottish immigrants carried versions of the tradition to North America in the nineteenth century. Other western countries embraced the holiday in the late twentieth century. Halloween is now celebrated in several parts of the western world, most commonly in Ireland, the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, and the United Kingdom.
Also called All Hallows Eve
All Saints’ Eve
Observed by Many Christian nations, including England, United States, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Canada, sometimes Australia and New Zealand and many Latin American countries where it is known as Noche de las Brujas (Night of the Witches) Type Religious, Cultural (celebrated mostly irrespective of religion) Significance There are many sources of Halloween’s significance Date October 31 Celebrations Trick-or-treating, Bobbing for apples, Costume parties, Carving jack-o’-lanterns, Bonfires and Fireworks (in Ireland)
The Festival of Halloween is a celebration of the end of the fertile period of the Celtic Goddess Eiseria. It is said that when Eiseria reaches the end of her fertile cycle the worlds of the dead and the living interlap. This happens on October 31. Masks are worn to show respect for the Goddess Eiseria who, like most Celtic deities, does not wish to be seen with human eyes. The day also preceeds All saints day, which was at first the celebration of the start of a new cycle of fertility for the celtic Goddess Eiseria. Couples incapable of producing children thus tried their luck on All saints day.
Halloween is very popular in Ireland, where it is believed to have originated, and is known in Irish as Oíche Shamhna, literally “Samhain Night”. Pre-Christian Celts had an autumn festival, Samhain(pronounced/ˈsˠaunʲ/from the Old Irish samain), “End of Summer”, a pastoral and agricultural “fire festival” or feast, when the dead revisited the mortal world, and large communal bonfires would hence be lit to ward off evil spirits. (See Origin: Celtic observation of Samhain below).
Pope Gregory IV standardized the date of All Saints’ Day, or All Hallows’ Day, on November 1 in the name of the entire Western Church in 835. As the church day began at sunset, the holiday coincided exactly with Samhain. It is claimed that the choice of date seems consistent with the common practice of leaving pagan festivals and buildings intact (e.g., the Pantheon), while overlaying a Christian meaning.. However, there is no actual documentation of any reliability, whatsoever, backing up the presumption. While the Celts might have been content to move All Saints’ Day from their own previous date of April 20, the rest of the world celebrating it on May 13,  it is speculated without evidence that they were unwilling to give up their pre-existing autumn festival of the dead and continued to celebrate Samhain.
Unfortunately, there is frustratingly little primary documentation of how Halloween was celebrated in preindustrial Ireland. Historian Nicholas Rogers has written,
It is not always easy to track the development of Halloween in Ireland and Scotland from the mid-seventeenth century, largely because one has to trace ritual practices from [modern] folkloric evidence that do not necessarily reflect how the holiday might have changed; these rituals may not be “authentic” or “timeless” examples of pre-industrial times.
On Halloween night in present-day Ireland, adults and children dress up as creatures from the underworld (e.g., ghosts, ghouls, zombies, witches and goblins), light bonfires, and enjoy spectacular fireworks displays, despite the fact that such displays are usually illegal. It is also common for fireworks to be set off for the entire month preceeding Halloween, as well as a few days after. Halloween was perceived as the night during which the division between the world of the living and the otherworld was blurred so spirits of the dead and inhabitants from the underworld were able to walk free on the earth. It was believed necessary to dress as a spirit or otherworldly creature when venturing outdoors to blend in, and this is where dressing in such a manner for Halloween comes from. This gradually evolved into trick-or-treating because children would knock on their neighbours’ doors, in order to gather fruit, nuts, and sweets for the Halloween festival. Salt was once sprinkled in the hair of the children to protect against evil spirits.
The houses are frequently adorned with pumpkins or turnips carved into scary faces; lights or candles are sometimes placed inside the carvings to provide an eerie effect. The traditional Halloween cake in Ireland is the barmbrack, which is a fruit bread. Barmbrack is the centre of an Irish Halloween custom. The Halloween Brack traditionally contained various objects baked into the bread and was used as a sort of fortune-telling game. In the barmbrack were: a pea, a stick, a piece of cloth, a small coin (originally a silver sixpence) and a ring. Each item, when received in the slice, was supposed to carry a meaning to the person concerned: the pea, the person would not marry that year; the stick, “to beat one’s wife with”, would have an unhappy marriage or continually be in disputes; the cloth or rag, would have bad luck or be poor; the coin, would enjoy good fortune or be rich; and the ring, would be married within the year. Commercially produced barmbracks for the Halloween market still include a toy ring.
Games are often played, such as bobbing for apples, where apples, peanuts and other nuts and fruit and some small coins are placed in a basin of water. The apples and nuts float, but the coins, which sink, are harder to catch. Everyone takes turns catching as many items possible using only their mouths. In some households, the coins are embedded in the fruit for the children to “earn” as they catch each apple. The Scottish and English have adapted the tradition to a game named “ducking”, in which a participant quickly dunks in a water-filled container in an attempt to get a prize, without being submerged too long. Another common game involves the hands-free eating of an apple hung on a string attached to the ceiling. Games of divination are also played at Halloween, but are becoming less popular.
At lunch-time (midday meal, known as “dinner” in Ireland), a traditional Halloween meal Colcannon is eaten, often with coins wrapped in grease-proof paper mixed in. In recent decades the practice of midday dinners in the home has declined and with it this traditional Halloween ritual. Irish children have a week-long Halloween break from school; the last Monday in October is a public holiday given for Halloween even though they often do not fall on the same day.
Scotland, having a shared Gaelic culture and language with Ireland, has celebrated the festival of Samhain robustly for centuries. Robert Burns portrayed the varied customs in his poem “Hallowe’en” (1785).
Halloween, known in Scottish Gaelic as “Oidhche Shamhna”, consists chiefly of children going door to door “guising”, i.e., dressed in a disguise (often as a witch or ghost) and offering entertainment of various sorts. If the entertainment is enjoyed, the children are rewarded with gifts of sweets, fruits or money. There is no Scottish ‘trick or treat’ tradition; on the contrary, ‘trick or treat’ may have its origins in the guising customs.
In Scotland a lot of folklore, including that of Halloween, revolves around the belief in faeries. Children used to dress up in costumes and carry around a “Neepy Candle,” a devil face carved into a hollowed out Neep, lit from inside, to frighten away the evil faeries usually nowadays, however, they are more likely to use a pumpkin, as american children do. This is possibly because it is easier to carve a face in a pumpkin than in a “neep”, because “Neeps” are harder and more tough than pumpkins. Some believe that the practice of hollowing out pumpkins into jack-o-lanterns has roots here.
Popular games played on the holiday include “dooking” for apples (i.e., retrieving an apple from a bucket of water using only one’s mouth). In places, the game has been replaced (because of fears of contracting saliva-borne illnesses in the water) by standing over the bowl holding a fork in one’s mouth, and releasing it in an attempt to skewer an apple using only gravity. Another popular game is attempting to eat, while blindfolded, a treacle or jam coated scone on a piece of string hanging from the ceiling. Sometimes the blindfold is left out, because it is already difficult to eat the scone. In all versions, however, the participants cannot use their hands.
In 2007, Halloween festival organisers in Perthshire said they wanted to move away from US-style celebrations, in favor of more culturally accurate traditions. Plans include abandoning the use of pumpkins, and reinstating traditional activities such as a turnip lantern competition and “dooking (ducking) for apples”.
Isle of Man
England and Wales
All Saints’ Day (All Hallows Day) became fixed on November 1, 835, and All Souls’ Day on November 2, circa 998. On All Souls’ Eve, families stayed up late, and little “soul cakes” were eaten by everyone. At the stroke of midnight there was solemn silence among households, which had candles burning in every room to guide the souls back to visit their earthly homes, and a glass of wine on the table to refresh them. The tradition continued in areas of northern England as late as the 1930s, with children going from door-to-door “souling” (i.e., singing songs) for cakes or money. The English Reformation in the 16th century de-emphasised holidays like All Hallows Day and its associated eve. With the rise of Guy Fawkes Night celebrations in 17th century England, many Halloween practices, especially the building of bonfires, were moved to November 5.
Halloween celebrations in the UK were repopularised in the 1980s with influence from America, and saw the reintroduction of traditions such as pumpkin carvings and trick-or-treat.  Between 2001 and 2006, consumer spending in the UK for Halloween rose tenfold from £12m to £120m, according to Bryan Roberts from industry analysts Planet Retail, making Halloween the third most profitable holiday for supermarkets. Nowadays, adults often dress up to attend costume parties, pub parties and club parties on Halloween night.
In parts of England, there is a similar festival called holy day which falls on the November 4. During the celebration, children play a range of “tricks” (ranging from minor to more serious) on adults. One of the more serious “tricks” might include the unhinging of garden gates (which were often thrown into ponds, or moved far away). In recent years, such acts have occasionally escalated to extreme vandalism, sometimes involving street fires.
Throughout England (and much of the British Isles), children carve faces or designs into hollowed-out pumpkins. Usually illuminated from within, the lanterns are displayed in windows in keeping with the night’s theme of fright and horror. (See article Jack-o’-lantern.) Before the introduction of pumpkin carving from the United States, it was common to carve large swedes (a.k.a. neeps or yellow turnips), which is still done in some areas.
Bobbing for apples is a well-established Halloween custom, synonymous with the Scottish “dukin”. In the game, apples were placed in a water-filled barrel, and a participant would attempt to catch an apple with one’s mouth only. Once an apple was caught, it would be peeled and tossed over the shoulder in the hope that the strips would fall into the shape of a letter, which would supposedly be the first initial of the participant’s true love. According to another superstition, the longer the peel, the longer the peeler’s life would be; some say that the first participant to get an apple would be the first to marry.
Other Halloween festivities include fireworks, telling ghost stories, and playing children’s games such as hide-and-seek. Apple tarts might be baked with a coin hidden inside, and nuts of all types are traditional Halloween fare. Bolder children may play a game called “thunder and lightning”, which involves loudly knocking on a neighbor’s door, then running away (like lightning). This game is known as “knock-door-run”, “knock-and-run”, “knock-knock-zoom-zoom”, “ding-dong-ditch”, or “postman’s knock” in parts of the country, and is also played on Mischief Night Tradition has been changing, as the majority of today’s children will arrive at a door and intone “trick-or-treat” in order to receive money and sweets.
There has been increasing concern about the potential for antisocial behavior, particularly among older teens, on Halloween. Cases of houses being “egg-bombed” (especially when the occupants do not give money or gifts) have been reported, and the BBC reports that for Halloween 2006 police forces have stepped up patrols to respond to such mischief.
United States and Canada
Halloween did not become a holiday in the United States until the 19th century, where lingering Puritan The transatlantic migration of nearly two million Irish following the Irish Potato Famine (1845–1849) finally brought the holiday to the United States. Scottish emigration from the British Isles, primarily to Canada before 1870 and to the United States thereafter, brought the Scottish version of the holiday to each country. tradition restricted the observance of many holidays. American almanacs of the late 18th and early 19th centuries do not include Halloween in their lists of holidays.
Scottish-American and Irish-American societies held dinners and balls that celebrated their heritages, with perhaps a recitation of Robert Burns‘ poem “Halloween” or a telling of Irish legends, much as Columbus DayItalian-American heritage than Columbus per se. Home parties would center around children’s activities, such as bobbing for apples, and various divination games often concerning future romance. Not surprisingly, pranks and mischief were common as well. celebrations were more about
The commercialization of Halloween in the United States did not start until the 20th century, beginning perhaps with Halloween postcards (featuring hundreds of designs) which were most popular between 1905 and 1915. Dennison Manufacturing Company, which published its first Hallowe’en catalog in 1909, and the Beistle Company were pioneers in commercially made Halloween decorations, particularly die-cut paper items. German manufacturers specialised in Halloween figurines that were exported to the United States in the period between the two world wars.
There is little primary documentation of masking or costuming on Halloween in the United States or elsewhere, prior to 1900. Mass-produced Halloween costumes did not appear in stores until the 1930s, and trick-or-treating did not become a fixture of the holiday until the 1950s.
In the United States, Halloween has become the sixth most profitable holiday (after Christmas, Mother’s Day, Valentines Day, Easter, and Father’s Day). In the 1990s, many manufacturers began producing a larger variety of Halloween yard decorations; prior to this a majority of decorations were homemade. Some of the most popular yard decorations are jack-o’-lanterns, scarecrows, witches, orange and purple string lights, inflatable decorations (such as spiders, pumpkins, mummies and vampires), and animatronic window and door decorations. Other popular decorations are foam tombstones and gargoyles. Halloween is now the United States’ second most popular holiday (after Christmas) for decorating; the sale of candy and costumes are also extremely common during the holiday, which is marketed to children and adults alike. According to the National Retail Federation, the most popular Halloween costume themes for adults are, in order: witch, pirate, vampire, cat and clown. Each year, popular costumes are dictated by various current events and pop culture icons.On many college campuses, Halloween is a major celebration, with the Friday and Saturday nearest October 31 hosting many costume parties.
Universal’s Halloween Horror Nights is one of the largest and most elaborate Halloween events in the world. The month-long event takes place at Universal Studios theme parks in Florida and Hollywood.
The National Confectioners Association reported, in 2005, that 80 percent of American adults planned to give out candy to trick-or-treaters, and that 93 percent of children planned to go trick-or-treating.
Anoka, Minnesota, the self-proclaimed “Halloween Capital of the World”, celebrates the holiday with a large civic parade and several other city-wide events. Salem, Massachusetts, also has laid claim to the “Halloween Capital” title, while trying to dissociate itself from its history of persecuting witchcraft. At the same time, however, the city does see a great deal of tourism surrounding the Salem witch trials, especially around Halloween. In the 1990s, the city added an official “Haunted Happenings” celebration to the October tourist season.. Nearby Keene, New Hampshire, hosts the annual Pumpkin Fest each October which previously held the record for having the greatest number of lit jack-o’-lanterns at once. (Boston, Massachusetts holds the record as of October 2006).
Rutland, Vermont has hosted the annual Rutland Halloween Parade since 1960. Tom Fagan, a local comic booksuperhero theme. In the early 1970s, the Rutland Halloween Parade achieved a degree of fame when it was used as the setting of a number of superhero comic books, including Batman #237, Justice League of America #103, Amazing Adventures #16 and The Mighty Thor #207. fan, is credited with having a hand in the parade’s early development and
New York City hosts the United States’ largest Halloween celebration, known as The Village Halloween Parade. Started by Greenwich Village mask maker Ralph Lee in 1973, the evening parade now attracts over two million spectators and participants, as well as roughly four million television viewers annually. It is the largest participatory parade in the country if not the world, encouraging spectators to march in the parade as well.
In many towns and cities, trick-or-treaters are welcomed by lit porch lights and jack-o’-lanterns. In some large and/or crimeridden areas, however, trick-or-treating is discouraged, or refocused to staged trick-or-treating events within nearby shopping malls, in order to prevent potential acts of violence against trick-or-treaters. Even where crime is not an issue, many American towns have designated specific hours for trick-or-treating, e.g., 5-7 pm or 5-8 pm, to discourage late-night trick-or-treating.
Those living in the country may hold Halloween parties, often with bonfires, with the celebrants passing between them. The parties usually involve traditional games (like snipe hunting, bobbing for apples, or searching for candy in a similar manner to Easter egg hunting), haunted hayrides (often accompanied by scary stories, and costumed people hiding in the dark to jump out and scare the riders), and treats (usually a bag of candy and/or homemade treats). Scary movies may also be viewed. Normally, the children are picked up by their parents at predetermined times. However, it is not uncommon for such parties to include sleepovers.
Trick-or-treating may often end by early evening, but the nightlife thrives in many urban areas. Halloween costume parties provide an opportunity for adults to gather and socialize. Urban bars are frequented by people wearing Halloween masks and risqué costumes. Many bars and restaurants hold costume contests to attract customers to their establishments. Haunted houses are also popular in some areas.
In Mexico, Halloween has been celebrated during the last 40 years where the celebrations have been influenced by the American traditions, such as the costuming of children who visit the houses of their neighbourhood in search of candy. Though the “trick-or-treat” motif is used, tricks are not generally played on residents not providing candy. Older crowds of preteens, teenagers and adults will sometimes organize Halloween-themed parties, which might be scheduled on the nearest available weekend.
Halloween in Mexico begins three days of consecutive holidays, as it is followed by All Saints’ Day, which also marks the beginning of the two day celebration of the Day of the Dead or the Día de los Muertos. This might account for the initial explanations of the holiday having a traditional Mexican-Catholic slant.
Australia and New Zealand
In the southern hemisphere, spring is in full swing by October 31, and the days are rapidly growing longer and brighter. This does not mesh well with the traditional Celtic spirit of Halloween, which relies on an atmosphere of the encroaching darkness of winter.
However, Halloween has recently gained a large amount of recognition in Australia and to an extent New Zealand, largely due to American media influences. In 2006, costume shops reported a rise in sales on Halloween-themed costumes, on October 31, 2006. On Halloween night, horror films and horror-themed TV episodes are traditionally aired.
Halloween is largely uncelebrated in the Caribbean. However, like Australia and New Zealand, the event is not unheard of in the Caribbean and is seeing some increase in popularity.
In some parts of the British West Indies, there are celebrations commemorating Guy Fawkes Night that occur around the time of Halloween. The celebrations include using firecrackers, blowing bamboo joints and similar activities.
On the island of Bonaire, the children of a town typically gather to trick-or-treat for sweets among the town shops (instead of people’s homes, as in other countries).
The children of the largest town in Bonaire all gather together on Halloween day.
Halloween had never been celebrated in Malta until recently, with its popularity increasing thanks to the many costume parties, usually for teenagers and young adults, being organized on Halloween night. Trick-or-treating is not widely known in Malta.[citations needed]
People’s Republic of China
There is no Halloween in Chinese tradition, but there is a similar Chinese holiday called Ghost Festival. The Ghost Festival is a traditional Chinese festival and holiday, which is celebrated by Chinese people in many countries. In the Chinese calendar (a lunisolar calendar), the Ghost Festival is on the 14th night of the seventh lunar month, which is called Ghost Day. In Chinese tradition, the ghosts and spirits, including those of the deceased ancestors, come out from the lower world.
Hong Kong, a former British colony, does celebrate Halloween every year unlike the Mainland.
In other regions such as Japan and Germany, Halloween has become popular in the context of American pop culture. Some Catholics do not appreciate the resultant de-emphasis of the more spiritual aspects of All HallowsReformation Day, respectively, or of regional festivals occurring around the same time (such as St Martin’s Day). Business has a natural tendency to capitalize on the holiday season’s more commercial aspects, such as the sale of decorations and costumes. Eve and
The carved pumpkin, lit by a candle inside, is one of Halloween’s most prominent symbols. This is an Irish tradition of carving a lantern which goes back centuries. These lanterns are usually carved from a turnip or swede (or more uncommonly a mangelwurzel). The carving of pumpkins was first associated with Halloween in North America, where the pumpkin was available, and much larger and easier to carve. Many families that celebrate Halloween carve a pumpkin into a frightening or comical face and place it on their home’s doorstep after dark.
The jack-o’-lantern can be traced back to the Irish legend of Stingy Jack, a greedy, gambling, hard drinking old farmer who tricked the devil into climbing a tree, and trapped him by carving a cross into the trunk of the tree. In revenge, the devil placed a curse on Jack which dooms him to forever wander the earth at night. For centuries, the bedtime parable was told by Irish parents to their children. But in America the tradition of carving pumpkins is known to have preceded the Great Famine period of Irish immigration, and the tradition of carving vegetable lanterns may also have been brought over by the Scottish or English; documentation is unavailable to establish when or by whom. The carved pumpkin was associated generally with harvest time in America, and did not become specifically associated with Halloween until the mid to late 19th century.
The imagery surrounding Halloween is largely an amalgamation of the Halloween season itself, nearly a century of work from American filmmakers and graphic artists, and a rather commercialized take on the dark and mysterious. Halloween imagery tends to involve death, magic, or mythical monsters. Common Halloween characters include ghosts, ghouls, witches, vampires, bats, owls, crows, vultures, haunted houses, pumpkinmen, black cats, aliens, spiders, goblins, zombies, mummies, skeletons, and demons. Particularly in America, symbolism is inspired by classic horror films, which contain fictional figures like Dracula, Frankenstein’s monster, and The Mummy. More modern horror antagonists like Freddy Krueger, Michael Myers, Leatherface, Jason Voorhees, and the Jigsaw Killer have also become associated with the holiday. Homes are often decorated with these symbols around Halloween.
Color Symbolism Black death, night, witches, black cats, bats, vampires Orange pumpkins, jack o’ lanterns, Autumn, the turning leaves, fire
Jack-o’-lanterns are often carved into silly or scary faces.
Trick-or-treating and guising
United States and Canada
The main event for children of modern Halloween in the United States and Canada is trick-or-treating, in which children disguise themselves in costumes and go door-to-door in their neighborhoods, ringing each doorbell and yelling “trick or treat!” to solicit a gift of candy or similar items. Although the practice resembles the older traditions of guising in Ireland and Scotland, ritual begging on Halloween does not appear in English-speaking North America until the 20th century, and may have developed independently. Upon receiving trick-or-treaters, the house occupants (who might also be in costume) often hand out small candies, miniature chocolate bars, nuts, loose change, soda pop, stickers, or even crayons and pencils. Some homes will use sound effects and fog machines to help establish an eerie atmosphere. Other less scary house decoration themes might be used to entertain younger visitors. Children can often accumulate many treats on Halloween night, filling up entire pillow cases, pumpkin-shaped buckets, shopping bags or large plastic containers.
In places of Ireland, huge bonfires are lit. Young children in disguise are gladly received by the neighbors with “fruit, miniature chocolate bars, loose change, peanuts and of course sweets” for the “Halloween Party”, whilst older male siblings play innocent pranks on their bewildered victims. Some homes will put up decorations including Halloween lights. Since schoolchildren have the week off for Halloween, it is common for teenagers and college students to spend weeknights out with friends pranking and causing mischief, if not trick-or-treating themselves.
In Scotland, children are known as “guisers”, though this term is now going into decline. In the past, the children going guising would dress in various (often home-made) costumes and disguises: hence (dis)’guisers’. The most popular costumes were skeletons, witches and various forms of scary fiends, complete with papier mache masks, though nurses’ or cowboys’ outfits were also given a rather incongruous outing. They would then form small bands of mixed-age children, the older ones trailing their younger siblings behind them, and venture out into the darkness each with their lantern. Until at least the 1970s the traditional Halloween light carried by Scottish children was not the now ubiquitous pumpkin but a ‘tumshie lantern’ made, as with a pumpkin, by hollowing out a very large swede/yellow turnip (“tumshie” in the West of Scotland dialect of Scots) and carving a scary face, through which shone the candle inside. Then, each carrying their tumshie lantern, they would knock on all the neighbours’ doors where the eldest or boldest of the group would ask, “Are ye wantin’ any guisers?”. If the answer was yes, the children would be invited inside where the grown-ups would pretend to try to guess the identity of each guiser, who then had to impress the company with a song, poem, trick, joke or dance – known as their ‘party piece’ – in order to earn treats Today, however, they simply say “trick or treat” in order to earn sweets. Traditionally, nuts, oranges, apples and dried fruit as well as “sweeties” were offered, though children might earn a small amount of cash, usually no more than 50p. In some houses the neighbours would have prepared a pail or basin filled with apples ready for the game of ‘dookin’ for apples’. The children had to ‘dook’ (Scots) their faces into the water with their hands behind their backs to try to pick up a apple by biting into it. Even in the variant where a fork was held in the mouth and used like a spear or harpoon this was an almost impossible task as the apples bobbed on the water, but it did ensure that all concerned would get very wet indeed! .
In England, trick-or-treating does occur, although the practice is regarded by some as a nuisance or even a menacing form of begging. In some areas, households have started to put decorations on the front door to indicate that trick-or-treaters are welcome, the idea being that trick-or-treaters will avoid a house not participating in the custom. Tricks currently play a less prominent role, though Halloween night is often marked by vandalism such as soaping windows, egging houses or stringing toilet paper through trees. Before indoor plumbing was ubiquitous, tipping over or displacing outhouses was a popular form of vandalism. Casting flour into victim’s faces was also common practice at one time. Until at least the 1930s a popular game at Halloween parties in Lancashire involved fixing a line of string across the room from which were hung buns dipped in black treacle. As with the Scottish tradition of ‘dooking’ the idea was for the participants, sometimes blindfolded, to bite into a bun and pull it off the string without using their hands, with predictably messy results.
Halloween costumes are traditionally those of monsters such as vampires, ghosts, skeletons, witches, and devils. Costumes are also based on themes other than traditional horror, such as those of characters from television shows or movies. In 2007, many people will be wearing these popular costumes due to current events and pop culture influences.
BIGresearch conducted a survey for the National Retail Federation in the United States and found that 53.3% of consumers planned to buy a costume for Halloween 2005, spending $38.11 on average (up 10 dollars from the year before). They were also expected to spend $4.96 billion in 2006, up significantly from just $3.29 billion the previous year.
“‘Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF” has become a common sight during Halloween in North America. Started as a local event in a Philadelphia suburb in 1950, and expanded nationally in 1952, the program involves the distribution of small boxes by schools to trick-or-treaters, in which they can solicit small change donations from the houses they visit. It is estimated that children have collected more than $119 million (US) for UNICEF since its inception. In 2006, UNICEF discontinued their Halloween collection boxes in parts of the world, citing safety and administrative concerns. 
Games and other activities
There are several games traditionally associated with Halloween parties. The most common is dooking or bobbing for apples, in which apples float in a tub or a large basin of water; the participants must use their teethtreacle or syrup-coated scones by strings; these must be eaten without using hands while they remain attached to the string, an activity which inevitably leads to a very sticky face. to remove an apple from the basin. A variant of dooking involves kneeling on a chair, holding a fork between the teeth and trying to drop the fork into an apple. Another common game involves hanging up
Some games traditionally played at Halloween are forms of divination. In Puicíní (pronounced “poocheeny”), a game played in Ireland, a blindfolded person is seated in front of a table on which several saucers are placed. The saucers are shuffled and the seated person then chooses one by touch. The contents of the saucer determine the person’s life during the following year. A saucer containing earth means someone known to the player will die during the next year, a saucer containing water foretells emigration, a ring foretells marriage, a set of Rosary beads indicates that the person will take Holy Orders (becoming a nun or a priest). A coin means new wealth, a bean means poverty, and so on. In 19th-century Ireland, young women placed slugs in saucers sprinkled with flour. The wriggling of the slugs and the patterns subsequently left behind on the saucers were believed to portray the faces of the women’s future spouses. A traditional Irish and Scottish form of divining one’s future spouse is to carve an apple in one long strip, then toss the peel over one’s shoulder. The peel is believed to land in the shape of the first letter of the future spouse’s name. This custom has survived among Irish and Scottish immigrants in the rural United States.
In North America, unmarried women were frequently told that if they sat in a darkened room and gazed into a mirror on Halloween night, the face of their future husband would appear in the mirror. However, if they were destined to die before marriage, a skull would appear. The custom was widespread enough to be commemorated on greeting cards from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
The telling of ghost stories and viewing of horror films are common fixtures of Halloween parties. Episodes of TV series and specials with Halloween themes (with the specials usually aimed at children) are commonly aired on or before the holiday while new horror films, like the popular Saw (film series), are often released theatrically before the holiday to take advantage of the atmosphere.
Visiting a haunted attraction like a haunted house or hayride (especially in the northeastern or midwest of the USA) are other Halloween practices. Notwithstanding the name, such events are not necessarily held in houses, nor are the edifices themselves necessarily regarded to possess actual ghosts. A variant of the haunted house is the “haunted trail”, where the public encounters supernatural-themed characters or presentations of scenes from horror films while following a trail through a field or forest. One of the largest Halloween attractions in the United States is Knott’s Scary Farm in California, which features re-themed amusement park rides and a dozen different walk through mazes, plus hundreds of costumed roving performers. Among other theme parks, Walt Disney World‘s Magic Kingdom stages a special separate admission event after regular park hours called Mickey’s Not-So-Scary Halloween Party featuring a parade, stage show featuring Disney villains and a Happy HalloWishes fireworks show with a Halloween theme, while their sibling park in California, DisneylandMickey’s Halloween Treat at their California Adventure park. The Universal Studios theme parks in Hollywood and Orlando also feature annual Halloween events, dubbed Halloween Horror Nights. holds
Because the holiday comes in the wake of the annual apple harvest, candy apples (also known as toffee, taffy or caramel apples) are a common Halloween treat made by rolling whole apples in a sticky sugar syrup, and sometimes rolling them in nuts. At one time, candy apples were commonly given to children, but the practice rapidly waned in the wake of widespread rumors that some individuals were embedding items like pins and razor blades in the apples. While there is evidence of such incidents, they are quite rare and have never resulted in serious injury. Nonetheless, many parents assumed that such heinous practices were rampant; at the peak of the hysteria, some hospitals offered free x-rays of children’s Halloween hauls in order to find evidence of tampering. Virtually all of the few known candy poisoning incidents involved parents who poisoned their own children’s candy, while there have been occasional reports of children putting needles in their own (and other children’s) candy in a mere bid for attention.
One Halloween custom which persists in modern-day day Ireland is the baking (or more often nowadays the purchase) of a barmbrack (Irish “báirín breac”), which is a light fruit cake into which a plain ring is placed before baking. It is said that those who get a ring will find their true love in the ensuing year. See also king cake.
Other foods associated with the holiday:
- Candy corn
- Báirín Breac (Ireland)
- Colcannon (Ireland)
- Bonfire toffee (in the UK)
- Toffee Apple (Australia when celebrated, England, Wales and Scotland, instead of “Candy Apples”)
- Apple cider
- Roasted sweetcorn
- Roasted pumpkin seeds
- Pumpkin pie and pumpkin bread
- “Fun-sized” or individually wrapped pieces of small candy, typically in Halloween colors of orange, and brown/black.
- Novelty candy shaped like skulls, pumpkins, bats, worms, etc.
- Small bags of chips, pretzels and cheese corn
- Chocolates, caramels, and gum
In Ireland and Scotland Halloween is far more traditional an event than in North America, with more cultural and historical significance, as opposed to the commercialized importance on the other side of the Atlantic. Therefore, even amongst most conservative Christians, it is a far more accepted holiday with hardly any moral objections, in particular amongst Roman Catholics. However some people do find and, to some extent resent, an Americanization occurring towards Halloween, which in turn could affect some traditions, notably the SamhainGuy Fawkes night is not celebrated in the Republic of IrelandUK on November 5, whereas in Britain Guy Fawkes Night is culturally more important. origins of the festival. It should also be noted that at all. Therefore Halloween replaces the celebrations that are experienced in the
In North America, Christian attitudes towards Halloween are quite diverse. The fact that All Saints Day and Halloween occur on two consecutive days has left some Christians uncertain of how they should treat this holiday. In the Anglican Church, some dioceses have chosen to emphasize the Christian traditions of All Saints Day, while some Protestants celebrate the holiday as Reformation Day, a day of remembrance and prayers for unity. Celtic Christians may have Samhain services that focus on the cultural aspects of the holiday, in the belief that many ancient Celtic customs are “compatible with the new Christian religion. Christianity embraced the Celtic notions of family, community, the bond among all people, and respect for the dead. Throughout the centuries, pagan and Christian beliefs intertwine in a gallimaufry (hodgepodge) of celebrations from October 31 through November 5, all of which appear both to challenge the ascendancy of the dark and to revel in its mystery.”
Some Christian churches commonly offer a fall or harvest festival-themed alternative to Halloween. Many Christians ascribe no negative significance to Halloween, treating it as a purely secular holiday devoted to celebrating “imaginary spooks” and handing out candy. Halloween celebrations are common among Roman Catholic parochial schools throughout North America and in Ireland. In fact, the Roman Catholic Church sees Halloween as having a Christian connection. Father Gabriele Amorth, a Vatican-appointed exorcist in Rome, has said, “[I]f English and American children like to dress up as witches and devils on one night of the year that is not a problem. If it is just a game, there is no harm in that.” Most Christians hold the view that the tradition is far from being “satanic” in origin or practice and that it holds no threat to the spiritual lives of children: being taught about death and mortality, and the ways of the Celtic ancestors actually being a valuable life lesson and a part of many of their parishioners’ heritage. A response among some fundamentalists in recent years has been the use of Hell houses or themed pamphlets (such as those of Jack T. Chick) which attempt to make use of Halloween as an opportunity for evangelism. Some consider Halloween to be completely incompatible with the Christian faith due to its origin as a Pagan “festival of the dead.” In more recent years, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston has organised a “Saint Fest” on the holiday. People of diverse religions (or no religion at all) may naturally be concerned about the vandalism that can occur on the holiday. Also, some Wiccans feel that the tradition is offensive to “real witches” for promoting stereotypical caricatures of “wicked witches”. However, other Neopagans, perhaps most of them, see it as a harmless holiday in which some of the old traditions are celebrated by the mainstream culture, albeit in a different manner.
Ray Bradbury‘s The Halloween Tree features the holiday prominently. Halloween is frequently mentioned as an important date in the Harry Potter book series by J.K. Rowling, whose central themes are wizardry and magic. In Alan Moore‘s graphic novel Watchmen, several pivotal events occur on Halloween night, including the death of the original ‘Nite-Owl‘. Washington Irving‘s The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and the character of the Headless Horseman are often linked to the holiday in the public mindset due to later adaptations (though Halloween is not actually mentioned in the original work).
- Diane C. Arkins, Halloween: Romantic Art and Customs of Yesteryear, Pelican Publishing Company (2000). 96 pages. ISBN 1-56554-712-8
- Diane C. Arkins, Halloween Merrymaking: An Illustrated Celebration Of Fun, Food, And Frolics From Halloweens Past, Pelican Publishing Company (2004). 112 pages. ISBN 1-58980-113-X
- Lesley Bannatyne, Halloween: An American Holiday, An American History, Facts on File (1990, Pelican Publishing Company, 1998). 180 pages. ISBN 1-56554-346-7
- Lesley Bannatyne, A Halloween Reader. Stories, Poems and Plays from Halloweens Past, Pelican Publishing Company (2004). 272 pages. ISBN 1-58980-176-8
- Phyllis Galembo, Dressed for Thrills: 100 Years of Halloween Costumes and Masquerade, Harry N. Abrams, Inc. (2002). 128 pages. ISBN 0-8109-3291-1
- Lint Hatcher, The Magic Eightball Test: A Christian Defense of Halloween and All Things Spooky, Lulu.com (2006). ISBN 978-1847287564
- Ronald Hutton, Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain, Oxford Paperbacks (2001). 560 pages. ISBN 0-19-285448-8
- Jean Markale, The Pagan Mysteries of Halloween: Celebrating the Dark Half of the Year (translation of Halloween, histoire et traditions), Inner Traditions (2001). 160 pages. ISBN 0-89281-900-6
- Lisa Morton, The Halloween Encyclopedia, McFarland & Company (2003). 240 pages. ISBN 0-7864-1524-X
- Nicholas Rogers, Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, Oxford University Press (2002). 198 pages. ISBN 0-19-514691-3
- Jack Santino (ed.), Halloween and Other Festivals of Death and Life, University of Tennessee Press (1994). 280 pages. ISBN 0-87049-813-4
- David J. Skal, Death Makes A Holiday: A Cultural History of Halloween, Bloomsbury USA (2003). 224 pages. ISBN 1-58234-305-5
- Ben Truwe, The Halloween Catalog Collection. Portland, Oregon: Talky Tina Press (2003). ISBN 0-9703448-5-6.
Na Siolu je objavljen zelo zanimiv spletni članek o temu prazniku, citiram:
Noč čarovnic – najbolj strašna noč v letu
Bliskovito se nam približuje najbolj strašljiva noč v letu, noč, ko se čarovnice, duhovi in ostala strašljiva bitja podajo na sprehod po Zemlji. Buuuuu! Skrajni čas je že za priprave, saj vas pred temi strašljivimi podobami reši le ena stvar – velika nasmejana buča.
Datum, ki si ga morate zapomniti je 31. oktober. Na ta dan se obvezno pazite črnih mačk, čarovnic, duhov in netopirjev, ki se bodo vsi zbrali, da praznujejo noč čarovnic ali “halloween”. Ko pade mrak vsi strašljivci tesno zaprite okna, preverite ali so vhodna vrata zaklenjena, se skrijte pod svojo odejo in psssst … Malo bolj pogumni pa lahko pripravite noro zabavo, kamor boste povabili vse strašljive obiskovalce. V tem primeru pustite vrata široko odprta, na vhod pa postavite nasmejano bučo.
Halloween – mešanica kultur in stoletij
Pri nas noč čarovnic poznamo kot eno izmed kapric, uvoženih iz Amerike, ko se otroci našemijo, poslušajo grozljive zgodbice in po hišah prosijo za sladkarije.
Vendar je noč čarovnic ali halloween veliko več kot to. Je očarljiva mešanica kultur in stoletij: mešanica keltskega novega leta, romanskega praznika boginje sadnega drevja in sadja – Pomone in krščanskega praznika vseh svetih.
Konec poletja, začetek teme in mraza
Kelti, ki so živeli na tleh sedanje severne Francije in Velike Britanije, so novo leto praznovali 1. novembra. Dan poprej pa so praznovali Samhain, prehod obdobja svetlobe ali našega poletja v obdobje teme, tako da so svečeniki (druidi) darovali pridelek in kurili ognje. Plesali so okoli ognja in tako se je začelo obdobje mraza in teme. Verjeli so, da se duhovi umrlih, ta čas vrnejo na Zemljo, da bi poiskali še živeča telesa in se jih polastili za naslednje leto. Veljalo je namreč prepričanje, da je to edino upanje v posmrtno življenje. Seveda nad tem niso bili prav nič navdušeni še živeči, zato so se 31. oktobra oblačili v grozljive kostume ter bili zelo glasni – vse za to, da bi pregnali duhove, ki bi se lahko polastili njihovih teles.
Ko so na Otok vdrli Rimljani, so s seboj prinesli tudi svoja praznika: dan boginje Pomone, ko so se oblekli v kostume, sešite iz živalskih kož, in priredili parado ter praznik Feralia konec oktobra, ko so se spomnili svojih umrlih.
Dan, posvečen dušam umrlih
Šele krščanska cerkev je 1. november spremenila v dan, posvečen dušam umrlih. Na začetku so kristjani ta praznik praznovali z ognjem in paradami, oblečeni v angele, svetnike in hudiče. Tudi samo ime Halloween pravzaprav pomeni predvečer praznika vseh svetih (All Hallow Even ali na kratko Hallow E’en).
Jack z lučko
Če po čem poznamo noč čarovnic, so to izdolbene buče, v katere postavimo sveče. Legenda pripoveduje o starem zlobnem pijancu Jacku, ki je hotel pretentati samega hudiča. Ko je ta nekoč splezal na jablano, je Jack okrog debla hitro nastavil križe, da zlodej ni mogel z drevesa. Zato sta se pogodila, da hudobec ne bo vzel Jackove duše, ko bo ta umrl. Šele nato je odstranil križe in dovolil peklenščku z drevesa.
Čez leta, ko je prišla njegova zadnja ura, se je Jack odpravil pred nebeška vrata. Vendar ga je sveti Peter zavoljo njegovega grešnega življenja zavrnil, tako da Jacku ni preostalo drugega, kot da gre v pekel. Hudič pa ni hotel vzeti njegove duše in se držal dogovora, ki sta ga pred leti sklenila. Ker je bila tema, mu je vrag iz pekla vrgel košček žarečega oglja, ki ga je Jack položil v izdolbeno repo, kar je bila njegova najljubša hrana. Tako si sveti, ko njegova duša blodi po svetu in nima kam.
Ko so irski emigranti prišli v Ameriko, so ugotovili, da so buče veliko bolj primerne za dolbenje in vstavljanje ognja kot pa repa.
Nori ples s čarovnicami
Ko so se prvi priseljenci naselili na ameriških tleh, so s seboj prinesli tudi vraže o čarovnicah. Te se dobijo dvakrat na leto, ob prehodu v letni in v zimski čas. Takrat se zberejo vse čarovnice na zabavi, ki jo gosti sam vladar podzemlja. Čarovnice prihajajo nepričakovano k ljudem in povzročajo zmedo. In kaj morate storiti, če jih hočete srečati? Opolnoči, 31. oktobra, morate svoja oblačila obleči narobe in hoditi zadenjsko. Boste poskusili?
Kostumi in sladkarije
Danes v Ameriki našemljeni otroci pozvonijo pri vratih in zavpijejo: “Trick or treat!”, v zameno pa prejmejo sladkarije. Običaj prav tako prihaja od irskih Keltov, vendar s primesjo evropskega dušnega praznika.
Ko so praznovali Samhain, so ljudje duhovom nastavljali hrano, da bi jih s tem pomirili. Poleg tega je na zbiranje sladkarij po hišah vplival tudi star kmečki običaj, da so pred praznikom sv. Columbusa hodili od hiše do hiše in zbirali denar ter razne priboljške za praznovanje.
2. november je dan vseh rajnih ali dan vseh duš in kristjani so hodili od vasi do vasi ter prosili za “dušne torte”, ki so bile pravzaprav bel kruh z rozinami. Več ko je prosilec dobil dušnih tort, večkrat je moral obljubiti, da bo molil za mrtve sorodnike darovalcev. Verovali so namreč, da duše po smrti še nekaj časa ostanejo v vicah, nato pa jim molitve (tudi neznancev) pomagajo priti v nebesa.
In noč čarovnic danes?
Danes je noč čarovnic praznik, ki ga obožujejo tako otroci kot odrasli. Na ta dan se vse vrti okoli čarovnic, pomarančnih sladkarij in nasmejanih buč. Bodite kul in pred vrata postavite veliko bučo, ki bo čez prag spustila dobre, pred vrati pa pustila zle čarovnice in duhove.
Praznujte najbolj strašno noč v letu!
Čarovnice, duhovi in netopirji bodo dan kmalu spremenili v noč, in to ne katerokoli noč, temveč najbolj strašno noč od vseh. Ko pa se na vaših vratih v noči 31. oktobra oglasi zvonec, imejte pripravljeno goro sladkarij, saj znajo biti duhovi in zle čarovnice močno nestrpni.
Samo ena stvar vas lahko reši v noči čarovnic, to je velika nasmejana buča, ki pa jo morate sami izrezljati. Zato, ko pade mak, prižgite svečke v bučah, oblecite maske duhov in strašnih vampirjev ter pripravite odštekano praznovanje. Na balkone in pred vhodna vrata obesite strašljive balone, nad vrata obesite pajkovo mrežo, sladkarije, ki ste jih pripravili za goste, duhove in čarovnice pa skrijte v strašššššššno posodo. Pa poglejmo, kdo si bo upal vzeti največ! In ne pozabite, najpomembnejša je nasmejana buča! (SiOL/Petra Kern/Foto Reuters/JupiterImages)